Monday, June 27, 2011

Jones Surname DNA : A Haplogroup Hypothesis

A hypothesis is defined as a tentative assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical or empirical (based on observation or experience) consequences. Having my DNA tested, I have observed the results in a variety of settings. See the following post: 1) "Where Our Genealogy Begins", Oct. 26, 2010, 2) "Basic Principles", Nov. 5, 2010, 3) "Causes of Mutation", Nov. 13, 2010, 4) "Our Address Book", Nov. 19, 2010, 5) "Terms, Terms, and More Terms", Dec. 22, 2010, 6) "The Gene Tree, Haplogroups", Dec. 30, 2010, 7) "Haplogroups to Haplotypes", Jan. 2, 2011, 8) "Haplogroups by Geography", Jan. 10, 2011, 9) "Dominate Haplogroups by Geography", Jan. 15, 2011, 10) "The Rift Valley", Jan. 20, 2011, 11) "On Up The Valley", Jan. 26, 2011, 12) "Melting Pot and Launching Pad", Jan. 29, 2011, 13) "R1b1b", Feb. 2, 2011, 14) "The Delta of the Danube", Feb. 6, 2011, 15) "A Horse", Feb. 10, 2011, 16) "Show me the money!", Feb. 15, 2011, 17) "Celtic R1b1", Feb. 20, 2011, 17) "The Celtic Tongues", Feb. 22, 2011, 18) "Celtic DNA Among the Islands", Feb. 25, 2011, 19) "Celtic Tribes to Welsh Tribes", Mar. 2, 2011, 20) "According to the Story", Mar. 14, 2011, 21) "Well, It's About Time", May 2, 2011, 22) "The Right Branch", May 7, 2011, 23) "The Next Panels", May 11, 2011, 24) "Markers, Markers, and more Markers", May 16, 2011, 25) "Those Other Jones", May 20, 2011, 26) "Where in the World?", June 1, 2011, 27) "Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA)", June 5, 2011, 28) "Tag Your It", June 9, 2011, 29) "Lining Folks Up", June 13, 2011, 30) "The Jones Surname: Not Genetic but Phonetic", June 18, 2011, and 31) "Multiple Roots", June 22, 2011.

Whew...what a list! All leading to the following hypothesis.

Genetically, by DNA, the JONES surname has multiple origins. Sharing the JONES surname does not mean that we come from a common ancestor. On the contrary, having the JONES surname means we are more likely not related by surname, but by a series of historical events leading to the surname. [See under blog, "Impact, The Act of Union 1536", Feb. 24, 2011.] For those of us who do carry the surname, it would appear that we do share the following haplogroups.

First, haplogroup P seems to be a common root for all those with the haplogroup R. I would suspect this represents the Proto-Indo-European language group dating genetically from around 35,000 years ago. Haplogroup R appears around 30,000 years ago as the roots of the Indo-European languages, clustering around the Black Sea area. R1b, forming a linguistic branch ca. 25,000 years ago, most likely being the Celtic-Ital0-Tocharia branch. Arriving in central Europe, the R1b1, and the R1a split into the Proto-Celtic (us), and Balto-Slavo-Germanic groups (them). Moving along the Iberian peninsula and onto the island (Albion), the Brythonic branch R1b1a evolved into the Welsh R1b1a2.

Now, if you analyze those who have joined the JONES surname DNA group [at my analysis, 275 folks had joined], 78% had the haplogroup R. [R1b1 76%, R1a 2%]. Of those remaining, 11% had the haplogroup I [those Vikings]. Haplogroup E [African Americans?] showed 6%. Haplogroup G, 3% [Asia Minor], and haplogroup J, 2% [Middle East] made up the rest joining the JONES DNA group. Only one showed Q. [Native American].

So there you have it. Haplogroup R for most of us. Haplogroup R1b [76%] , with my JONES DNA R1b12a. [Haplotype in 92% of a Welsh study group!]

Please post any comments?

Wednesday, June 22, 2011

Multiple Roots

The English system of heraldry is well established. The origins are based upon the fact that a man in full armour was unrecognizable. Since full armour was usually worn with the intent of inflicting great bodily harm at very close quarters, it was necessary to know who was on the "giving" and the "receiving" ends of the conflict. Therefore, each man wore a distinctive coat by which he could be recognized. [As you know, this became known as the coat "of arms".] These distinctive symbols were displayed on banners, horse cloth, and shield. It was often the case that if one had been dismembered and disfigured beyond recognition, this coat was the only means of identity.

The organizational system for arranging these distinctive symbols (called blazoning, assigning, and marshalling coat armour) became the "rules" of heraldry. In principle no two men in the same region could wear exactly the same coat of arms. [Did not want to get all those bodies mixed up.] Over time, these symbols became personal marks of the owner's possessions, and since few people could read in those days, they also became a type of visual communication.

The figure above shows those JONES families who had coat armour before 1870. They are present by the English and Welsh counties from which they resided as recorded in Burke's General Armory of 1884. On pages 546-549, there are 108 JONES families listed with coat armour. These have also been listed by the counties they represented in the table below in England, Wales, and Ireland. [Those that could be identified by county.]

The highest number of families are to found in London with seven. This is followed by Hereford and Carmarthen with six. There are a fair number of counties with five, most being "border" counties such as Monmouth, Salop, Worcester, Denbigh, and Flint. Dublin and Ulster in Ireland had five each.

Sixty one coat of arms were found in England. Thirty one coat of arms were found in Wales. Fourteen coat of arms were found in Ireland. All these were recorded before Burke was published in 1884.

Most of these arms had distinctive blazoning thus representing different JONES families. This will be discussed in future posts. For now, there are multiple roots to this JONES surname!

The map and table was taken from The Jones Genealogist, Vol. VIII, No.1, 1996, p.4 and p. 6.

The analysis of coat armour was taken from The General Armory of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales; comprising A Registry of Armorial Bearings From The Earliest to The Present Time, by Bernard Burke, Ulster King of Arms, Harrison, London, 1884.

Saturday, June 18, 2011

The Jones Surname: Not Genetic but Phonetic

The Jones Surname is perhaps one of the most difficult surnames to trace out the family tree. An understanding of its origin has helped clarify the DNA roots and the various factors which have influenced the beginnings of this surname.

A variety of post at several blogs have shown that the origin of the JONES surname is due to the English transliteration of the Welsh spelling of "John". This Christian name was introduced into Wales before 500 AD. It was the old English (Anglo-Saxon) spelling that was transliterated into the English legal system that became the spelling JONES. [Under the Act of Union 1536.] This produced a great number of families taking the JONES surname which were not genetically related. This means that today, there are many who share the surname JONES, but are not genetically related. This explains why so many DNA results do not match. Our Y-chromosomes are not the same. This also means that there is not a single genetic beginning of the JONES surname, but many different family sources, most having their origins in Wales.

These various historical, linguistic, cultural, and religious factors have been presented based upon my research of more than 50 years.

Under the blog - see the following posts:

"The Beginnings", July 31, 2010.
"The Name of John", Sept. 12, 2010.
"Why JOHN", Sept. 14, 2010.
"How do you spell JOHN", Sept. 16, 2010.
"IOAN", Sept. 18, 2010.
"Belief Systems", Oct. 18, 2010.
"Tudor Trevor", Dec. 27, 2010.
"Associated Surnames", Jan. 1, 2011.
"My JONES Family Coding System", Jan. 19, 2011.
"The Children of Tudor Trevor", Jan. 26, 2011.
"Early Welsh Descendants", Feb. 4, 2011.
"Taking the surname JONES", Feb. 23, 2011.
"Impact, The Act of Union 1536", Feb. 24, 2011.
"The Domesday Book and John", Feb. 26, 2011.
"A Precarious Position", Mar. 5, 2011.
"1st To Record", Mar. 15, 2011.
"Early English Records and the Jones Surname", Mar. 24, 2011.
"The First JONES Surname in English Records", Mar. 28, 2011.
"Matilda Jones - The First Jones", Apr. 1, 2011.
"On and On it Goes", Apr. 7, 2011.
"Number Two Jones", Apr 12, 2011.
"Ancient Petitions A Transition Period", Apr. 18, 2011.
"Welsh Names in English Records 1301 AD", Apr. 23, 2011.
"Norman Names", Apr. 30, 2011.
"Saxon Name Calling", May 4, 2011.
"Dane Lands", May 8, 2011.
"Welsh Birth Names 1301 AD", May 12, 2011.
"Jones Surname 1273 - 1500 in England and Wales", May 17, 2011.
"Jones Surname in Wales after 1500 AD", May 21, 2011.
"Jones Surname in England and Wales 1500-1700". June 2, 2011.
"Phonetic Not Genetic", June 6, 2011.
"Genetic Bowel of Spaghetti", June 10, 2011.
"Jones Surname By English Monarchs 1485-1714", June 14, 2011.

Monday, June 13, 2011

Lining Folks Up

Having discussed the concept of the most recent common ancestor, and presented my JONES family genealogy and DNA results, I thought it might be helpful to try and put it all together. If you were to match my pattern of DNA, you can then follow the line up as outlined.

For anyone who has a 67/67 marker match, this would suggest that we share my 6th generation grandfather Thomas Jones (JY-6). He was born 1796 in Virginia, and came to Kentucky with his family in 1811. He did have a bunch of brothers (at least six) so there is a lot of this Y-chromosome going around.

A 37/37 exact match would go back to my 7th generation grandfather, Nicholas Jones (JX-33) who was the father of Thomas (JY-6). He was born 1762 in Caroline Co., Virginia, fought in the Revolutionary War, and brought his family to Kentucky in 1811. Not much difference in a 67/67 match, and the 37/37 exact match.

The 25/25 exact match goes back to my 13th generation grandfather Thomas Jones (JR-180) of Llanfair-Dyffry-Clwyd, Denbighsire, Wales. He was active during the 1550s, being a student at Christ Church, Oxford, 1555. The family moved to Rochcester around 1598, and brought its Y-chromosome to the county of Kent.

A 12/12 exact match launches us back to my 29th generation grandfather Ynyn ap Gadforch (JB-1). He was active 850-900 AD, being the father of Tudor Trevor (JC-1). This branch of the family had been settled along Wat's Dyke for many generations.

So there you have our most recent common ancestors, all lined up. North Wales, to the county Kent, to the shores of Virginia, to the Bluegrass of Kentucky. Any matches?

Thursday, June 9, 2011

Tag Your It

Recent changes in the classifications of my haplotype, R1b1b to R1b1a2, made for some interesting additional questions. What in the world does this mean!?...was the first. I had spent a fair amount of time shifting through the data on R1b1b. It pointed me to Wales. What does this change do?

The International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) and Family Tree DNA (FTDNA) seemed to have a slightly different view. Apparently it was FTDNA that first made the changes in their haplotype classification. [Where I had my DNA tested.] This was based upon the identification (clarification) of a specific sub-group [called "sub-clade"] of R1b. This sub-group demonstrated (dominated by) a specific genetic marker tagged R-m412. It was found on those who carried the R1b1b marker tagged R-m269. This sub-group [sub-clade ] was found in Wales 92.3 % of the 65 people studied! Wow, I made it home! This change in classification showed that my genealogy work of more than 50 years was again supported. My genes exposed. Another change is possible before all this gets straighten out. Tag your it!

Sunday, June 5, 2011

Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA)

Come one, come all. Get your DNA done! A 12-marker..., 25-marker..., 37-marker..., or even a 67-marker marker match is magic and magnificent! [Even more markers are now available.] Put your money down, spin the wheel, and find your ancestors. Its easy! Its fun! Step right up!

So goes the buzz. The DNA dimension of genealogy has exploded upon the stage. The problem is, many of the DNA products do not explain what the results will show until you have done the testing. How much money do you want to spend? How many markers should you do? Who are my ancestors anyway? Will I find my long lost relatives?

The chart to the right tries to show approximately what the DNA tests results demonstrate. For a 12-marker test, an exact match shows that you would share a common ancestor some 29 generations past. [Using 35 years/generation would be roughly 1015 years] Wow, I share, with my matches, a common ancestor some 1,000 years ago. Now if you have an exact 25-marker test, you would share a common ancestor some 13 generations ago. Let's see, that would bring you to (13 x 35) 455 years ago. This cuts in half the number of years from our common ancestor. Humm...a 37-marker exact match would place our common ancestor 7 generations back. Wow, only (7 x 35) 245 years. Just about the close of the French and Indian War in America. Now an exact 67-marker test would place our common ancestor just 6 generations back. That is roughly 210 years. (6 x 35) Wow, that is around 1800. At least some census data exist for most of the states. So, not much difference between the 37-marker and 67-marker tests. [Except for the money.]

So there you have it. [Plus or minus 5%.] A 67-marker test (exact match) can bring you to 1800. Step right up.

Wednesday, June 1, 2011

Where in the World?

My Jones surname DNA had 26 exact 12 marker matches. Where in the world are they? An exact 12 marker test showed that our most recent common ancestor (MRCA) was some 29 generations ago! [95% chance] Who in this world has their genealogy traced back 29 generations?

Being an exception to the rule, my years of genealogy research [now 51 years], has traced my family's line back 53 generations. Given in a series of previous posts, starting with "The Beginnings (generations 1-5)" [March 23, 2011] and ending with "Finally There (generation 45 - "Pap paw" [April 29, 2011], the generations are presented. My 29th generation grandfather is Ynyr ap Gadforch (JB-1). This would take our common ancestor back to around 900 A.D.! He was the father of Tudor Trevor (JC- 1) who is given credit for "founding" our tribe.

Of the 26 exact 12 marker test the following was found:

Scotland = 5 matches

England = 4 matches

Germany = 3 matches

France, Ireland, Netherlands, Turkey, United Kingdom = 2 match each

Wales, Ukraine, Slovakia, and Albania = 1 match each.

Wow, what a number of countries that share my 12 marker test. Ynyr ap Gadforch descendants sure got around!

Now there were many, many more who matched 11/12 markers. This would go back to generation 47. In my family tree this would be Enid (Jq-1) going back to the early days of Roman occupation! [ca. 150 - 200 A.D.] From this ancestor, there were 168 "1-step" in Ireland, 156 in England, 122 in Scotland, 88 United Kingdom, 66 Germany, 36 Netherlands, 36 France, 22 Wales, 19 Spain, 13 Italy, and 11 Switzerland.

My R1b1b2 [now classified R1b1a2] is definitely in the world.