Monday, April 3, 2017

Foundational Concepts of DNA (2)

Corporate headquarters for your DNA is the nucleus.  At the same time, multiple branch offices reside scattered around that part of the cell out side of the nucleus called the "cytoplasm".  These branch offices are called "mitochondria" and contain a much smaller, circular shaped DNA passed down from the moms of the world.  You have come to call this mtDNA [ for this unique form of circular DNA located in the branch offices].   A big picture of this single cell organization is shown.

The yellow area is the nucleus.  The clear moist looking area is the cytoplasm.  Within each branch office [mitochondria] are specialized copy machines called "ribosomes".  Communication between the home office and all the branches use special messengers to carryout the purpose of this organization called RNA [ribonucleic acid].  Three RNA forms exist called messenger RNA... transfer RNA... and ribosomal RNA.  Universally accepted as the central tenant, the purpose of DNA is to make proteins:  1) new DNA is copied from the existing DNA, 2) messenger RNA is copied from DNA, and 3) proteins are made from this messenger RNA.  Wow...what a deal.