Wednesday, January 14, 2015

Haplogroups to Haplotypes

Our human genome has been around a long time.  Since its beginning, any random, permanent change in the DNA molecule has been called a "mutation".  A change in one nucleotide base pair represents a "point mutation", and is referred to in genetic lingo as "single nucleotide polymorphism" or "SNP" which is pronounced "snip".  The Y-chromosome is the smallest of those DNA chains called chromosomes, and is least likely to undergo mutations among all 46. [ that male stubbornness I guess]  Once a single base pair mutates, it becomes a distinct marker for that chromosome.  This marker is then past along among the male descendants.  These markers have been identified, and have come to be called "haplogroups".   They have been labeled using the alphabet A thru T, with "haplogroup A" starting things off.   The following chart shows these haplogroups starting around 60,000 BC.


As time has progressed, these haplogroups have undergone additional genetic changes, at various additional sites, involving multiple nucleotide bases. [Whew...can you keep that straight]  These are again random chances but involve at least two base combinations next to one another (tandem) or at different (variable) sites along the DNA molecule.  These additional changes among the "haplogroups" are called "haplotypes".  The number of haplotypes vary, and those haplogroups with the highest number of haplotypes are shown in the figure above.

Haplogroup "E" has the highest number of haplotypes with 58.   This is followed by haplogroup "J" with 34, and haplogroup "O" with 31.  My JONES surname haplogroup "R" comes in forth with 29 haplotypes.

Now if you take the number of haplogroups and divide by the number of "1000 year of existence", you come up with a ratio of mutations per thousand years!   For example, if you take haplogroup "E" with its 58 haplotypes and divide by 50 [ the number 50,000/1000 = 50] you get a ratio of 1.16 mutations per 1000 years.  If you take my JONES haplogroup "R" [29 divided by 30,000/1000 ] you get a ratio of .967 per 1000 years.  However, if you take haplogroup "J" [ 34 divided by 25,000/1000] you get a ration of 1.36 mutations per 1000 years.  How about that...you get roughly 1 mutation per 1000 years for the haplogroups.  Haplogroups to haplotypes...part of our human family tree.

Data taken from "Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree" from Genome Research and Family Tree DNA.


Saturday, March 29, 2014

A New Blog

Can you believe it...a new blog on "Networking Jones Genealogy".  One theme is of course DNA and those with the JONES surname.   It's goal is help provide a location for those who share an interest in this topic (subject) along with a number of other subjects that are important in this tree climbing thing called genealogy.  You can check this blog at:

     http://tjgnjg.blogspot.com for a statement of goals and the purpose of the blog.

If you have an interest in any of the themes, please let your self join in the networking with others who share this terminal illness.  Networking Jones Genealogy is the name.

Monday, June 17, 2013

12 Marker - Exact Matches

The folks who have shown a 12 marker exact match to my own DNA have some very different sounding surnames.  Say what!...was my first response to this finding.  These folks were to have shared a common ancestor some 1000 years ago. [Roughly around the time of the Norman invasion to the island.]  The following are those surnames.

Amshoff
Boyle
Claxton
Doharich
Sharp
Gilmore
Johnson
Weirich
Pritchard
Gill
Leonard
Pearson
Fouriner
Uttridge
Muradoglu
Maudire-Janton
Tilton

... say what!

Are there any folks out there with the surnames above who have done their DNA?  Would love to try and make the historical connections to these surnames?  Our common ancestors must have been close by around 1100 AD...!

Monday, April 8, 2013

A R1b1a2 from Ukraine

Sending a hello to the Ukraine.  A R1b1a2 begins his twitter at Arthwr Celt.  We share the same haplotype.  It must be from those Caucasian roots at the eastern side of the Black Sea.  Anyone else out there who share these roots?  Please post and say hello.

Sunday, July 15, 2012

My Research Notebooks : A New Blog

When all this DNA stuff began several years ago, I was hesitant to join in the fun.   What if all my years ( 52 years at present) of genealogy tree climbing would be wrong.  What if having my DNA analyzed would prove I was from "China" and not "Wales".   For several years I was scared to ask this question.   But, the bullet was bitten, and from Wales indeed I come!

My research along the way has been organized and stored in notebooks.  Long before this DNA was available (Watson-Crick just starting their base pairing), I started climbing the family tree. (Beginning 1960!)
Over the years, this research has been placed into notebooks.  This new blog is my attempt to outline this research [mostly into the surname JONES] and describe the content of each notebook.  Hopefully, this will give the family tree climber an opportunity to review these topics.

The notebooks are physically located at my personal library, The Joseph Wheeler Jones Memorial Library, Danville, KY.  They are available for use to any genealogist who would care to come and explore.  Please contact me and let me know you would like to examine the content.  You can search the blog sight using the "search" tag for subjects and content.  You can contact me using the comment section on any of my blogs.

Saturday, June 30, 2012

A Chang in China

Interest in the JONES surname DNA continues.  Several folks have written with information regarding their JONES family.  MJ Jones writes: "Yes, trying to find a Jones in Pennsylvania is like trying to find a Chang in China."

At any rate, this JONES family is haplogroup G.  The writer goes on to state that no one in the immediate family seems to be interested in exploring their DNA and seeks some help.  The lineage is of Price Thomas Jones, b. 1813 in Pennsylvania.  Any Jones, haplogroup G from PA out there?

Please keep those cards and letters coming!

Monday, June 18, 2012

COPYRIGHT NOTICE (3)

This is my third blog to post this notice.  Sorry for repeating the copyright, but it is necessary to place on all the blogs I have created.  This copyright includes all pictures, charts, graphs, maps, tables, text, and materials published.

You may not use the contents of this site (blog and posts) for commercial purposes without explicit written permission from the author and blog owner.  Commercial purposes includes blogs with ads and income generation features and/or blogs or sites using feed content as a replacement for original content.  Full content usage is not permitted.

Jerry E. Jones, MD, MS, The Jones Genealogist, Library of Congress No. 6192-01064476.