All this recent DNA stuff has gotten beyond confusing. Haplogroups, haplotypes, DYS#, locus, alleles, marker numbers, clades, subclades, mtDNA, autosomal DNA, SNPs, STPs, MVPs, MTVPs, big-Y or something like that; and on, and on, it goes. Not too long ago, it was just the Y-chromosome, a 12-marker test, a snip or two, and off you went to that DNA sunset.
Not any more it seems. What's one to do? A "big" picture came to mind...that "Y-chromosome" started things off. [actually it was that mtDNA = Seven Faces of Eve... but for me things got started climbing my own family tree through the male descent]. At any rate, a "big picture" removed from all that word soup might be of help. So here goes.
The Y-chromosome carries the linear array of genetic information essential for male sex determination. It is the smallest of all the chromosomes. To give you a visual picture of its related size to the other chromosomes, I have traced an image from the late prophase (a stage during its duplication phase) of a normal male karyotype. (a way the chromosomes can be visualized by their size, shape, and number)
The tracing shown above is made from "figure 7-6. Karyotype of normal male, with chromosomes in late prophase" p. 278 , Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, Behrman(Ed.), 4th Edition, Saunders....a text from my medical practice.